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The respective roles of secular law and islamic law are not well estab. The constitution allows for the convening of a loya jirga, the constituent assembly to discuss urgent matters of independence, territorial integrity, and national sovereignty. Karzai won the first presidential election in 2004 and was up for reelection in 2009.
In 2009, insecurity, lower voter turnout, intimidation, widespread ballot stuffing, and other electoral frauds characterized the presidential elections.
Candidates for the presidency declare two running mates who will serve as their first and second vice presidents. President of the islamic republic of afghanistan ashraf ghani ahmadzai (since 29 september 2014); The nation is currently led by president ashraf ghani who is backed by two vice presidents, amrullah saleh and sarwar danish. Lack of proper political mobilization has also created a system of patronage politics that is only perpetuating corruption and the inability of the government to deliver security and services.